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โรคไต อาการไตวาย การดูแลรักษา การล้างไต

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โรคไต อาการไตวาย การดูแลรักษา การล้างไต

Kidneys are vital organs of the body like the heart, brain and other organs, such as the appearance of a kidney bean-like seed, 2 seed placed around his waist. the spine Around the kidneys, ribs are covered to prevent damage. Each kidney weighs about 150 grams, a diameter of 11-12 cm in length approximately.

Make kidney

Since the kidney is an organ of the body. In the lower part of the abdomen, there are two sides together, and kidneys are still shaped like red beans. It weighs about 300 grams and the adrenal gland located above the kidney and 2 above the kidneys are the organs that is associated with the urinary tract. Are responsible for filtering waste and excess water minerals. To the urine The kidneys also have created a regulator of blood pressure. And substance stimulates erythropoiesis by.

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Kidney dialysis is divided into two layers and outer layers of the kidney. Each side receives blood from the heart through arteries. When blood flow through the kidneys It is filtered through a small kidney tubes of 1 million units in each kidney (Nephron) and then discharges through a filter in the form of urine.

[caption id="" align="aligncenter" width="460"] รูปภาพไต 3D[/caption]

The main function of the kidneys

  • Filter waste from the body in urine. When urine is then filtered through a cone kidney and ureter. Into the bladder and excreted by the body.
  • Maintaining acid - base Kidney, lung function with the control of carbon dioxide in the blood. Not to be too acidic. If blood is very acidic, the kidneys to increase urine acidity. And excreted from the body The acidity - pH (PH) on the functioning of the cell body is PH = 7.4.
  • Control the balance of water and minerals in the body. Wen will act together with the pituitary gland is called. Two Italian Pigeon Creek's Guernica (pituitary gland) to produce the hormone ADH controls the amount of water the body. If the body has too much water. The brain commands the renal excretion of water. We would frequent urination and dehydration, kidney, brain, will make less urine, urine color is darker. Wen also serves to control the balance of treatment-and-prevention' target='_blank'>potassium and sodium in the body properly.
  • Ely's production of hormones Minneapolis Latinos. It works with the bone marrow to make red blood cells, hormone renin, which controls blood pressure and so on.

Water balance in the body

One of the main functions of the kidneys Is to maintain the water balance within the human body. It is the organ that controls the amount of water in the body to normal. Because dehydration is only 2%, that translates to an abnormality in the blood system. The kidneys are responsible for balancing the water. If such bodies (drinking) water, too. Kidney will serve to drive out excess water, especially in urine. But when the body gets too little water. Kidneys to stimulate the body to feel hungry and thirsty and have to drink more water.

Renal failure

Kidney failure is a condition in which the kidneys lose function. Inability to control water balance, mineral acidity. Filtering waste from the body through urine, such as urea and synthetic hormones that act as key renin, which acts to regulate the pressure. Ili hormone called Poe's Latinos. Who served with the bone marrow to produce red blood cells.

[caption id="" align="aligncenter" width="600"] ไตวาย[/caption]

Renal failure is divided into two types.

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1. Acute renal failure (Acute kidney injury), or AKI is the loss of kidney function rapidly. The shock caused by the heart or ischemia. To be administered in large doses or prolonged poison the kidneys and causes the formation of. Wastes that contain nitrogen (nitrogenous waste products) and urea (urea) and Rieti Nin (creatinine) in the blood, resulting in physical disorders. The retention of salt and water.

2. CKD (chronic kidney disease) is a condition in which the body kidney damage continued for a long time. It may take a period of months or years. The destruction and loss of function permanently unable to regain it again. The cause of diabetes, high blood pressure. Stones in the urinary tract Most patients have no symptoms until the kidneys are damaged more than 50% to the onset of slip gut, vomiting, anorexia, edema, dyspnea a lie not with these symptoms will occur gradually. Until it is so severe that the patient can not tolerate the truth hurts.

Symptoms of renal failure

Symptoms of acute renal failure depends on the age and the severity of the loss of kidney function can be divided into 3 phases.

  1. Term low urine output (Oliguric-anuric phase) This phase will have a urine output of less than 400 ml. In 24 hours or less than 100 ml. In some cases, the accumulation of waste in the blood. Cause hemolytic Athletic Union Remix (Uremic syndrome - hemolysis, kidney eruptions) are nausea, vomiting, stomatitis, lethargy, seizures and unconsciousness addition, the imbalance of minerals. water pH can not be expelled from the metabolism (metabolic acidosis) respiratory system to help compensate for this work. He is breathing fast and deep. To drive carbon dioxide sine out more. To help reduce acidity in the body.
  2. Long piss off a lot (Diuretic phase) this urine is excreted over 1000 ml. In 24 hours, making a loss of sodium, potassium, chloride and water result in severe shock. Upon entering this class of compounds, urea and creatinine (Cr) decreased.
  3. Dauphin full term conditions (Recovery phase) is the level of urea and creatinine (Cr) in the blood return to normal.

The leading cause of kidney disease.

1. Eat salted

The food was salty. The body will need to drive out the excess minerals. The kidneys to work harder Every time we eat salty foods. We feel thirsty It is a mechanism of the body To drive the excess salt from the body. Through their own urine

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2. Overweight

People who are overweight have a higher risk of developing kidney disease. Because the body is obese. The waste deposits in the body a lot. The kidneys to work harder So waste time.

3. Hypertension

Since the kidney is responsible for the production of a controlled substance in the blood pressure to normal. Therefore, patients who suffer from hypertension. The risk of kidney disease. Patients with kidney disease often have high blood pressure as well.

4. The use of some drugs

There are some drugs that are toxic to the kidneys, such as painkillers, analgesic nephropathy because the latter quickly. The risk of developing kidney disease.

5. Smoking

Research has found that smoking-related. Kidney, smokers Wear faster than non-smokers.

Maintaining kidney failure

  1. Treat the cause of acute renal failure is trying to find the cause as quickly as possible the cause and stop them as fixing shock. Or a drug that causes kidney destruction.
  2. Dosage fix renal failure. To stimulate the kidneys and stimulates urination. Popular drug used mainly in the group of stimulants atherosclerosis (Vasoactive agent) and a diuretic.
  3. The palliative treatment of symptoms And control the disease is to maintain the balance of fluids in the body stable. And not too many If you can weigh patients should keep their weight down to about 0.2-0.3 kg per day. Avoid the use of drugs that are toxic to the kidneys. Surveillance balance of minerals. There may be patients who are likely to have high blood potassium. It should not be that high potassium foods such as wine, tea, coffee.
  4. Providing proper nutrition Catering to meet the needs of a patient's body. The power should be given on day 1 = 30-45Kcal their weight 1kg Avoid foods with enough protein. And should be nutritious, high protein (high biological value protein) is a protein from milk, eggs, meat and fish, but because milk contains high phosphate. In the kidney and therefore not recommended to eat.
  5. Clearing does the process that was invented to replace the loss of renal function to function. And contribute to the elimination of waste water, salt retention in the body. And treating side effects caused by renal failure, this process helps kidney patients' quality of life improved.

[caption id = "" align = "aligncenter" width = "584"] simulated dialysis [/ caption].

Dialysis There are 3 ways.

1. Kidney dialysis with an artificial kidney dialysis machine. The process takes blood from the body, patients with kidney dialysis. The filter medium is the elimination of waste and excess water from the body. Blood through dialysis and then is returned to the patient's body. Most dialysis machine takes 4-5 hour / session.

2. dialysis through the abdomen. A process that has been put into the dialysis fluid in the abdomen and hold approximately 4-6 hour dialysis to remove waste and excess water in the body. When the schedule was released on dialysis with waste and excess water left. And put plastic bags into new Most do this 4 times daily dialysis method, patients can do themselves at home.

3. kidney transplant Surgery brings kidney from a donor in terms of oxytocin receptors. Then connect the arteries to the kidney and ureter old. Do not be put off by the old style. A remedy for the highest performance available today.

[caption id = "" align = "aligncenter" width = "648"] Dialysis causes the self [/ caption].

After self-care dialysis

  • Always observe defecation and urination number of times the color constipation. Because constipation can cause abdominal pressure increases. Cause rupture or leakage of fluid.
  • Should weigh all Avoid weight gain over 0.5-1 Kg / day if weight while having dialysis to remove the hold abdominal weight off dialysis. It should be noted swelling of body parts.
  • And the cleaning of the exit of the ureter every day. And noted that the wound has pus and blood or not.
  • Observations, turbidity and color of dialysis. If turbidity or sediment should have been a doctor.
  • Eat one of 5 groups  in proportion to the proper amount.
  • Medication regularly as prescribed Do not discontinue any medication And when the disorder should consult a doctor.

People should drink a liter of water a day.

Good health does not come from food alone. But parts of the body, we also have a large amount of water to be used as a component in the functioning of various organs. A compound in blood serum to nourish the cells work balance. Mineral balance in the body. It also helps keep the skin moist and youthful too.

The drinking water that healthy people should know. Drinking is the appropriate body weight. At least on the advice of the World Health Organization. The formula used to drink enough water. Not less than this each day (weight (kg) x 2.2 x 30) / 2 = the amount of water to drink (ml per day).

Formula: should drink a liter a day.

For example People with a body weight of 65 kg would need to drink at least 2,145 ml per day, a person weighing 50 kg would have to drink at least 1,650 ml per day, you can see that even more weight. Water bodies should be increased accordingly.

The amount of sodium per day

Sodium content in foods Is mentioned nowadays. The most often mentioned negative than positive, but actually sodium is a mineral important part of the body. The system helps balance However, with food available on the market. Sodium is usually higher than needed each day. As a result, we get a kick out of this mineral are unconscious. To adjust eating habits themselves. Avoid foods that are salty. Should turn to understanding the amount of sodium that should get each day. That level to be Safe And healthy

[caption id="" align="aligncenter" width="464"] ตารางโซเดียม[/caption]

controlled sodium Reduce the risk of kidney disease

Foods that are high in sodium Does not mean the food is always salty. It also includes frozen food, fast food and processed food combinations. It contains a lot of sodium. The garnish is salty. Also causes the body has excess sodium requirement. Who likes to eat processed foods and salty foods is key. May be aware of their own health as well. Because each day The body needs sodium to 2,400 milligrams simply  without causing harm. If you want to stay healthy. Should be reduced to just 1,500 milligrams per day. It is sufficient

Salinity causes of kidney disease

Salinity with kidney disease It is well to be true? From past to present, we believe that eating food that tastes salty consecutive time. Is due to kidney disease. The effects of salt intake, too. It affects the body in the long term. We can explain it easily follows.

1. salt causes salt retention in the body.

When the body has too much salt. It can cause retention of salt and some water. So it makes sense that the swelling Because the kidneys can not get rid of salt and water immediately. Causes the kidneys to work harder Become chronic kidney followed. The backlog of salt are found throughout the body. In organs such as the heart, lungs, arms, legs and so on.

2. salinity causes blood pressure to rise.

The amount of sodium in the body too much to bring about the conditions, "high blood pressure", found in the elderly. If eating salty frequently Make high blood pressure to affect the operation of vessels in various spots. The heart Kidneys need to work harder to get rid of excess water. Reducing blood pressure to lower it.

3. The pressure in the nephron more.

It's not just the blood pressure in different sections. The body only higher That also includes the pressure within the kidney caused by retention of water. And kidneys to work harder to filter out excess sodium out as much as possible. As a result, the pressure in the nephron higher. Proteinnuria more And high pressure in the nephron. Cause the kidneys to deteriorate rapidly.

The effect of sodium on the body If you get in a ratio sufficient. It is considered beneficial If it has been more or less inevitably blame. As a result, the kidneys work harder. Followed by chronic kidney disease in the future.

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